Prevention and management of pressure injury to the heel

2018, Vol 9, No 2, pages 43–49

Pressure injuries on the heels often occur in immobile patients. The risk factors for these injuries stem from the anatomy of the calcaneus, impairments in blood flow to the foot and neuropathic disease. There are many clinical considerations in the prevention of heel pressure injury. This article addresses the epidemiology and economic impact of heel injury, identifies risk factors and differential diagnosis of their development, discusses challenges in prevention across the continuum of care, and provides guidance for selecting appropriate interventions in the prevention of heel pressure injury through the review of existing evidence. 


  • Joyce Black

    Associate Professor of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA

  • Nick Santamaria

    Professor of Nursing Research, University of Melbourne and The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

  • Amit Gefen

    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

  • C Tod Brindle

    Wound and Ostomy Consultant, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Centre, VA, USA

  • Jacqui Fletcher

    Independent wound care consultant , Bedfordshire, UK

  • Paulo Alves

    Professor, Health Sciences Institute, Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal